Карагана древовидная (желтая акация): использование цветов и листьев

Акация желтая

карагана древовидная, гороховник

Компактное высотой до семи метров с красивыми желтыми цветками. Популярная медоносная культура. Единственный представитель своего семейства, цветки которого используются в пищу. В народной медицине применяется для лечения простуды, головной боли, изжоги, стоматита.

Название на латыни: Caragána arboréscens
Название по-английски: Caragana arborescens
Семейство: Бобовые
Карагана древовидная (желтая акация): использование цветов и листьев

Карагана древовидная относится к семейству бобовых. Ее народное название акация желтая произошло от внешней схожести с растениями семейства акациевых, однако их близким родственником культура не является.

Растение часто путают с акацией катеху. Их различия — в регионе произрастания, внешнем виде и свойствах. Желтая акация распространена в лесной зоне России, от Сибири до Урала, обладает более крупными листочками, расположенными в ряд из пяти-восьми пар на тонких веточках. Не содержит акации камедь (гуммиарабик), используемый в качестве пищевой добавки. Катеху растет в Индии, ее листья мельче, внешне напоминает папоротник.

Особенности акации желтой

Культура получила широкое распространение в качестве декоративного растения. Она встречается в парках и лесных зонах. Представляет собой компактный кустарник высотой до двух метров или деревце высотой до семи метров. Толщина ствола не превышает пятнадцати сантиметров.

Листья выстроены в ряды, на каждой веточке — по два ряда парных овальных листочков. Цветет крупными цветками желтого цвета, в которых развита нектароносная ткань. В период цветения всегда окружена пчелами, ведь она дает много нектара. Мед караганы древовидной обладает нежным вкусом и невыраженным запахом, высоко ценится за уникальную концентрацию токоферолов (антиоксидантов).

С июля по август на деревце созревают плоды в виде цилиндрических бобов. Культура не требовательна к условиям произрастания, поэтому растет практически повсеместно. Она переносит засуху, жару, укореняется на почвах большинства типов.

Сбор и заготовка

В виде лекарственного сырья народная медицина использует листья и цветы акации караганы, ее кору и корни.

  • Цветы. Собирают в мае и июне, в период активного цветения. Цвет акации укладывают под навесом на открытом воздухе или в помещении на газеты. После высушивания цветочки сжимаются, но цвет сохраняют.
  • Листья, кора, корневище. Заготавливают в течение мая-сентября. В прохладных регионах карагана древовидная раньше сбрасывает листву, поэтому заготовку проводят до августа. Листья укладывают тонким слоем на бумагу и высушивают под навесом. Кору и корень также высушивают, измельчают перед употреблением.
Цветение акации очень красивое, поэтому ее высаживают на приусадебных участках, дачах. Она хорошо приживается везде, лучше растет на почве из смеси глины и песка. Деревце можно вырастить из семечка в деревянном ящике, установив его на солнечную сторону. Ростки развиваются быстро. Уже через полтора месяца после появления карагану можно пересаживать на постоянное место.

Семена акации в лечебных целях не применяются, они обладают гастрономической ценностью. Среди всех культур рода карагана плоды лишь этого растения используются в кулинарии. В незрелом виде они подаются отварными, тушеными в виде гарниров, из них готовят маринованные и квашеные закуски. Добавляют в многокомпонентные блюда в качестве альтернативы фасоли. Поджаренные семена размалывают и заваривают вместо кофе.

Любимые детьми стручки

Состав

Используемые в кулинарии плоды акации караганы богаты белком и жирными маслами. Также в них содержится целлюлоза, крахмал, незначительное количество дубильных веществ.

В листьях, цветах присутствуют вещества, обеспечивающие применение акации желтой в лечебных целях.

  • Аскорбиновая кислота, каротин. Этими ценными веществами особенно богаты листочки растения. Содержание витамина С в них достигает четырехсот миллиграммов, а витамина А — ста сорока миллиграммов на грамм ценного сырья.
  • Протеин. Содержится в листьях акации, ее цветах.
  • Флавоноид рутин. Его содержание в молодых листьях составляет около шести процентов. Природный компонент не синтезируется организмом человека, однако необходим ему для укрепления стенок сосудов и защиты от кровотечений.

При длительном хранении ценные вещества разрушаются. Особенно недолговечны витамины А и С, поэтому рекомендуется использовать запасенное сырье в течение одного сезона.

Кареглазая девушка пьёт настой из оранжевой чашки

Применение караганы древовидной

Растение не широко распространено в народной медицине. Однако его преимущество — в полной безопасности при использовании, в отличие, например, от сырья из акации белой, обладающей токсичными свойствами. Поэтому при ряде заболеваний будет полезным ознакомиться с описанием акации желтой и ее лечебными свойствами.

Рекомендовано использование при следующих заболеваниях:

  • вирусные инфекции, простуда;
  • заболевания полости рта;
  • головная боль;
  • изжога и нарушения функции печени;
  • недостаток витаминов А, С.

Цветки, листья, кору заваривают кипятком, отваривают и готовят настои.

Девочка на розовой подушке не грустит и пьёт травяной чай

Настой при простуде

Богатые витаминами листья помогут организму восстановить силы для эффективной борьбы с вирусным заболеванием. Для приготовления настоя также можно использовать корни.

Приготовление

  1. Измельчите высушенные листья, возьмите две столовые ложки.
  2. Залейте кипятком объемом 200 мл.
  3. Настаивайте в течение часа.
  4. Употребляйте по столовой ложке до четырех раз в день.

Корни обладают отхаркивающим действием, смягчают течение простуды.

Приготовление

  1. Измельчите высушенный корень, используйте одну столовую ложку сырья.
  2. Залейте кипятком объемом 200 мл.
  3. Протомите на малом огне десять минут.
  4. Настаивайте два часа.
  5. Процедите, отожмите сырье.
  6. Употребляйте теплым по трети стакана трижды в день.
Настой листьев эффективен при лечении стоматита, гингивита, других воспалительных заболеваний ротовой полости. Он обладает антисептическим действием, оказывает противовоспалительное действие. Полощите им пораженную область трижды в день.

Настой из листьев в чайничке из жаропрочного стекла

Настой листьев при головной боли

Чтобы унять головную боль, рекомендуется отвар из высушенных листьев. Он служит дополнительным источником витаминов А и С, что улучшает состояние организма в период болезни.

Приготовление

  1. Измельчите листья, используйте две столовые ложки сырья.
  2. Залейте кипятком объемом 200 мл.
  3. Оставьте на два часа настаиваться, процедите.

Применяйте средство по две столовые ложки трижды в день.

Настой цветов при изжоге

При нарушениях работы желудочно-кишечного тракта поможет настой из цветков желтой акации. Он снижает кислотность желудочного сока, благодаря чему устраняет изжогу. Также рекомендован в качестве вспомогательного средства при лечении гепатита.

Приготовление

  1. Залейте столовую ложку цветков кипятком объемом 200 мл.
  2. Оставьте настаиваться на один час.
  3. Процедите.

Употреблять лечебный напиток следует трижды в день по четверти стакана.

Акация карагана известна также как народное средство от аллергии. Применение ее при аллергических реакциях рекомендовано в виде отвара листьев. Лекарственное растение не имеет противопоказаний. Использовать его с осторожностью следует в случае индивидуальных негативных реакций.

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