Применение бадьяна в кулинарии и народной медицине

Бадьян настоящий

анис звездчатый, китайский анис, сибирский анис

Бадьян представляет собой низкорослое, вечнозеленое южное дерево, и в отечественном климате он так и не прижился. Его выращивают лишь в Азии, Индокитае, Северной Америке и Абхазии. Оттого традиции его применения в кулинарии у нас укоренились хорошо. А вот полезные свойства бадьяна для здоровья знакомы европейцам меньше. Зато бадьян широко используют в китайской и индийской народной медицине.

Название на латыни: Illicium
Название по-английски: Star anise
Семейство: Лимонниковые
Применение бадьяна в кулинарии и народной медицине

Бадьян или анис звездчатый принадлежит к семейству Лимонниковых. Однако некоторые источники относят его к семейству Бадьяновых, единственным представителем которого является он сам. Его не следует путать с более распространенным в наших широтах диким бадьяном, то есть, ясенцом, представителем семейства Рутовых. Разница между ними заключается в соотношении доказанных полезных и небезопасных для здоровья свойств.

В наших краях «обитает» лишь дикий бадьян – цветущее травянистое растение семейства Рутовых, схожее по внешнему виду цветков и семян с бадьяном настоящим, но совершенно иное с точки зрения химического состава и свойств. Одна из наиболее известных разновидностей растения – неопалимая купина.

Ее называют так оттого, что ее цветы выделяют в воздух легковоспламеняющиеся эфиры. Оттого в безветренную, сухую и теплую погоду достаточно лишь зажечь рядом спичку, и по воздуху над метелками неопалимой купины пробежит быстрое пламя. Причем само растение оно не задевает никогда. А сок дикого бадьяна вызывает фотосенсибилизацию кожи – резко повышает ее чувствительность к солнечному свету, что приводит к покраснению и появлению волдырей, словно кожу обожгло само растение.

Ядовит и другой мнимый «аналог» бадьяна настоящего – бадьян японский, запах которого совсем непохож на съедобную специю. Анис звездчатый, в отличие от них, не обладает столь ярко выраженными токсичными свойствами. Но схожие «черты» у него с ними все же есть, с чем и связаны многие противопоказания бадьяна в медицине.

Состав и полезные свойства бадьяна

С точки зрения вкуса и придаваемого блюдам аромата, путать анис с анисом звездчатым так же некорректно, как и называть бадьян звездчатым. Они похожи внешне, особенно схожей со звездочкой формой расположения плодов, но не более того. Аромат у аниса более сладкий, многие даже находят его слишком ярким и приторным. Бадьян издает более тонкий и менее «кондитерский» запах. И хотя так уж вышло, что использование бадьяна в кулинарии у нас исчерпывается кондитерскими изделиями, в Индии и Китае с ним охотно запекают различные сорта мяса, добавляют в ряд других несладких блюд.

В основном растение используют в качестве приправы к калачам, булочкам, сдобам, посыпая их его целыми или молотыми семенами сверху (реже – приправляют им начинку). Но с ним также можно заваривать глинтвейн (немецкий напиток – красное вино, подогретое с различными пряностями и сахаром), чай и натуральный кофе. В качестве специи бадьян входит в состав варенья, джемов и многих домашних спиртных напитков, включая вермуты и ликеры.

А вот лечебные свойства бадьяна обеспечиваются не столько его ароматом, сколько любопытным во многих отношениях составом. Больше всего в его семенах, конечно, эфирного масла со стимулирующим пищеварение и всю центральную нервную систему действием. Его присутствие приводит к эффекту легкого повышения температуры тела и артериального давления, ускорению обменных реакций. Но особую терапевтическую ценность бадьян представляет благодаря наличию в его составе следующих веществ.

  • Гидрохинон. Это широко известный восстановитель (участник реакций ощелачивания в противовес реакциям окисления), который применяется для проявления фотопленки в старых фотоаппаратах. Его также используют в стоматологии в качестве реагента для затвердевания некоторых видов пломб. Участвует он и в производстве косметических средств – красок для волос (для формирования стойкого цвета) и отбеливающих кремов для лица и тела. В настоящее время использование гидрохинона в косметологии ограничено из-за наличия у него канцерогенного действия на кожу. Он обесцвечивает ее (блокирует красящий пигмент меланин), открывая доступ радиоактивному по своей природе ультрафиолету в ее глубинные слои. А они не созданы терпеть такое влияние, и часто реагируют на него перерождением клеток. Плюс, при попадании в кровь он способствует превращению гемоглобина эритроцитов в метгемоглобин, который теряет способность связывать и транспортировать кислород/углекислоту. Избыток метгемоглобина приводит к гипоксии, а большие его концентрации – к смерти от кислородного голодания. Однако у применения гидрохинона есть и другая сторона. Он является слабым антисептиком и существенно снижает общую интенсивность реакций окислительного стресса (образование свободных радикалов) в организме.
  • Сафрол. Данное вещество содержится во многих эфирных маслах, но больше всего его как раз в масле семян бадьяна. Сафрол не обладает лекарственными свойствами, однако, он служит участником реакции, в результате которой получают знаменитый «экстази» – легкий наркотик амфетаминового ряда. В настоящее время «экстази» и все, из чего его можно изготовить, относится к наркотическим веществам, хотя данная оценка остается спорной, с научной точки зрения. В любом случае концентрация сафрола в эфирном масле семян бадьяна значительно ниже установленного законом порога в 15%. А потому в их составе как пряности он лишь обеспечивает улучшение настроения, бодрость и тонус, свойственные всем прочим разрешенным стимуляторам ЦНС, включая кофеин. Присутствие сафрола в семенах бадьяна позволяет им снимать симптомы легких недомоганий, создавать положительный настрой у пациента, что тоже важно для выздоровления.
  • Танины. Так называется ряд дубильных веществ с характерным горьким, вяжущим вкусом и слабым токсическим действием на любые живые организмы, включая человеческий или какого-либо возбудителя. Проще говоря, дубильные вещества являются сильными природными антибиотиками и антисептиками, а богатые ими растения всегда особенно ценились народной медициной за способность подавлять даже масштабные инфекции. Наибольшей концентрацией дубильных веществ может похвастать кора и древесина дуба (откуда и пошло их название), но их много и в коре других деревьев, кожуре граната, траве полыни, чистотела и зверобоя. Их присутствие обеспечивает семенам бадьяна львиную долю желчегонных, антисептических и противовоспалительных свойств.
  • Шикимовая кислота. В организме она выполняет функцию вещества-предшественника, из которого синтезируются несколько разных аминокислот (элементов любого животного белка, а белками в нашем теле является все – от клеток до гормонов и телец крови). Оттого ее расход после попадания в наш пищеварительный тракт очень высок, и в тканях тела в чистом виде она не накапливается. Зато ее много в семенах бадьяна. Ее участие в укреплении собственного иммунитета тела невелико и носит опосредованный характер, так как она просто способствует росту и обновлению тканей, синтезу новых телец, включая кровяные, а также гормонов и других белков, в том числе иммунных. Однако фармацевтическая промышленность использует ее в качестве реагента при получении осельтамивира – соединения с противовирусным действием, блокирующим размножение возбудителя. Долгое время осельтамивир получали исключительно из семян бадьяна. Но сложность и дороговизна метода побудили ученых к поиску путей его синтетического производства. Так что в настоящее время бадьян с этой целью уже не применяют. Правда, и результативность лечения гриппа осельтамивиром с момента его открытия неоднократно подвергалась сомнениям, да и его роль в развитии некоторых побочных эффектов обсуждается до сих пор.
Чаще всего лекарственные свойства бадьяна связывают с наличием в его семенах шикимовой кислоты. На самом же деле в организме реакции по синтезу осельтамивира из нее не происходят – только в лаборатории. Таким образом, семена бадьяна обладают слабыми свойствами антибиотиков благодаря вовсе не ей, а дубильным веществам.

Действие на организм

При таком составе польза бадьяна для здоровья заключается в следующих эффектах.

  • Потогонном. Стимулирование активности центральной нервной системы, свойственное бадьяну наравне с остальными специями, всегда сопровождается ускорением кровообращения и повышением артериального давления. То есть, разогревом всех тканей тела, поскольку их температура зависит от него напрямую.
  • Желчегонном. Дубильные вещества в составе бадьяна придают ему горьковато-терпкий оттенок вкуса и сильный специфический аромат. А пищеварительная система всегда реагирует на них активным выделением желчи (безо всякой взаимосвязи с наличием или отсутствием в продукте каких-либо жиров).
  • Противовоспалительном. Поскольку дубильные вещества являются антисептиками.

Это значит, что регулярное употребление семян бадьяна в пищу или в составе лекарственного средства действительно может помочь при ряде заболеваний.

  • Простуде и кашле. За счет способности ускорять обмен веществ во всем теле, стимулировать обновление слизистых оболочек верхних дыхательных путей, а также агентов иммунитета, включая те, что охотятся на возбудителей респираторных инфекций.
  • Заболеваниях кишечника. В частности, при несварении, дисбактериозе, энтеритах, колитах, вызванных патогенной микрофлорой с любым составом. Помогают они и при запорах, поносе, метеоризме, атонии кишечника.
  • Паразитах и глистах. Несмотря на то что при них, как утверждает китайская народная медицина, лучше всего принимать не семена, а кожицу с корней бадьяна. На самом же деле экстракт его семян тоже должен оказать слабое глистогонное действие, несравнимое даже близко с пирантелом, но заметное благодаря танинам (они определенно создадут в кишечнике среду, неблагоприятную для выживания колонии).
  • Патологиях печени. И желчного пузыря, в силу улучшения оттока желчи.
  • Воспалениях мочевыводящих путей. Цистите, нефрите, пиелонефрите, мочекаменной болезни.
  • Травмах и инфекциях кожи. В частности, при угревой сыпи и высыпаниях неясной этиологии, экземе. Экстракты семян бадьяна также облегчают зуд и снимают воспаление, срабатывая как чисто симптоматическое средство, при пиодермии, псориазе и многих других инфекционных/аутоиммунных кожных процессах.
  • Отклонениях со стороны ЦНС. При головной боли, спазмах, депрессии, нервных тиках, ночных страхах у детей и других похожих состояниях. Китайская и индийская народные медицины предполагают, что с помощью масла семян бадьяна можно лечить даже эпилепсию. Но любой современный невролог, конечно, посоветует ни в коем случае не заниматься ее самолечением.
  • Болях в суставах. Как возрастных, так и инфекционных, травматических и даже аутоиммунных.

Немедицинское использование растения

С помощью бадьяна представительницы прекрасного пола издревле ухаживали за лицом и волосами. Причем отзывы о применении отваров, настоев и паст из него даже лучше, чем о других признанных «стражах женской красоты». Все дело в высоком содержании в семенах бадьяна гидрохинона – восстановителя с небезопасными свойствами. Оттого, несмотря на внешне хорошие результаты, применение его экстрактов для улучшения цвета лица и волос категорически не рекомендовано, особенно летом.

Помимо прочего, на своей родине семена бадьяна считаются афродизиаком, полезным как для женщин, так и для мужчин. Судя по их составу, если они и оказывают какую-либо помощь при улучшении способности к зачатию, то только косвенную. Но их стимулирующее действие на ЦНС наверняка способно временно усиливать влечение. А содержание в них веществ, которые способствуют синтезу гормонов, несколько стабилизирует гормональный фон.

Теоретически, стимулирующее действие семян бадьяна на метаболизм, центральную нервную систему и кровообращение может помочь и при похудении, уменьшив тенденцию к отложению «лишних» калорий из пищи в жировые запасы. Но подобным действием отличаются почти все специи, а у «бодрящего» кофеина оно выражено даже заметнее.

Возможный вред

Вред бадьяна для здоровья в большинстве случаев ограничивается аллергией. Оттого лечиться бадьяном в домашних условиях строго противопоказано при наличии у пациента аллергии на какие-либо вещества, неважно, растительного или иного происхождения. При других иммунных нарушениях, включая те, при которых бадьян показан к применению (например, псориаз), семена бадьяна следует использовать с осторожностью. То есть, исключительно наружно и на ограниченных участках кожи. Из прочих побочных эффектов семена бадьяна могут спровоцировать:

  • ожоги – как кожи, так и слизистых, особенно при аппликациях или проглатывании пасты/масла из них;
  • тошноту – или даже рвоту, в силу перевозбуждения вкусовых рецепторов, чрезмерного повышения интенсивности перистальтики пищеварительной системы и раздражающего действия бадьяна на кишечник;
  • гипертонию – у предрасположенных лиц, из-за стимулирующего действия на ЦНС;
  • учащенное сердцебиение – и одышку, как распространенные признаки перевозбуждения ЦНС у лиц, страдающих сердечно-сосудистыми заболеваниями.

Из-за наличия у бадьяна ярко выраженного стимулирующего действия и присутствия в нем частично ядовитых веществ он противопоказан к приему при проблемной беременности (осуществленной методом ЭКО, при угрозах выкидыша.).

Злоупотреблять бадьяном также нежелательно в третьем триместре нормально протекающей беременности, поскольку он может спровоцировать преждевременные роды. И подобно всем специям, семена бадьяна лучше не добавлять даже в пищу в период грудного вскармливания, особенно если среди ближайших кровных родственников ребенка имеются аллергики.

Специя бадьян

Способы приготовления средств из аниса звездчатого

В нашей культуре семена бадьяна прежде всего воспринимаются как приправа к сладостям, а уж потом – лекарственное средство и добавка к несладким продуктам/блюдам. В частности, его свободно комбинируют со многими видами домашней консервации, особенно сладкой – в виде повидла и варенья.

Рецепт варенья с бадьяном остается таким же, как написано в кулинарной книге. Просто на трехлитровую его банку на этапе варки фруктов с сахаром нужно добавить одну «звездочку» бадьяна. Можно разломить ее на несколько частей, но превышать указанную пропорцию не стоит, так как аромат бадьяна в итоге может заглушить аромат самого продукта вместо того, чтобы подчеркнуть его. Знатоки утверждают, что лучше всего аромат семян бадьяна гармонирует со сливовым, смородиновым, абрикосовым, клюквенным, черничным и ежевичным вареньем.

Что касается того, как заваривать чай с бадьяном, то тут особой премудрости тоже нет – достаточно выдержать нужную дозировку и не «переборщить». На одну чашку черного чая принято класть целую «звездочку» бадьяна. Но поскольку при его ярком аромате это слишком много, уже через минуту от начала заваривания бадьян нужно извлечь из чашки. Затем в напиток можно добавить листик мяты или толику корицы, и оставить завариваться еще на семь-десять «классических» минут.

Водный настой

Особенности. Его готовят, преимущественно, при проблемах печени и желчного пузыря, сниженном аппетите, нарушениях кишечной моторики, метеоризме и отравлениях несвежей пищей. Оттого пьют настой семян бадьяна не курсами, а на разовой основе, в течение суток или чуть дольше (до исчезновения симптомов).

Вам понадобятся:

  • чайная ложка порошка семян бадьяна;
  • 350 мл (кружка) крутого кипятка;
  • термос со стеклянной внутренней колбой.

Приготовление и применение

  1. Предварительно прогрейте термос кипятком, засыпьте в него измельченные в порошок семена бадьяна.
  2. Залейте сырье свежим кипятком, закройте крышку и оставьте настаиваться в течение часа.
  3. Отцедите семена бадьяна через сложенную втрое марлю.
  4. Принимать такое средство из бадьяна следует по трети стакана, трижды в день, за полчаса до приема пищи.

Спиртовая настойка

Особенности. А вот настойка из бадьяна на самогоне или водке готовится дольше, хотя спиртовой экстракт его семян и получается концентрированным, с выраженным терапевтическим действием. Спиртовая настойка семян бадьяна особенно эффективна при ангине, бронхите и других заболеваниях верхних дыхательных путей.

Вам понадобятся:

  • 10 г порошка из семян бадьяна настоящего;
  • 100 мл самогона крепостью 40% или водки без добавок/ароматизаторов;
  • стеклянная посуда с плотной, притертой пробкой.

Приготовление и применение

  1. Засыпьте порошок семян бадьяна в посуду для настаивания, залейте чуть подогретым спиртом.
  2. Закройте посуду пробкой, встряхните ее несколько раз.
  3. Поставьте настойку в сухое, теплое, темное место на двадцать дней, извлекая ее раз в два-три дня, чтобы встряхнуть без открывания. По окончании срока настаивания отцедите растительную часть с помощью сложенной в три-четыре слоя марли.
  4. Принимать настойку нужно трижды в день, в промежутках между приемами пищи, смешивая перед каждым приемом чайную ложку настойки бадьяна с чайной ложкой меда. Курс лечения гриппа настойкой семян бадьяна длится одну-две недели.

Глинтевейн с бадьяном

Глистогонный препарат

Особенности. Это средство готовят при острицах. Если настой не помогает, лучше обратиться к врачу, ведь инвазия может быть смешанной.

Вам понадобятся:

  • столовая ложка «с горкой» порошка из семян бадьяна;
  • стакан крутого кипятка;
  • термос со стеклянной внутренней колбой.

Приготовление

  1. Предварительно прогрейте кипятком термос, сложите в него сырье бадьяна.
  2. Залейте свежим кипятком, закройте крышкой и несколько раз встряхните термос, словно шейкер.
  3. Оставьте бадьян настаиваться до полного остывания (около трех часов – в зависимости от качества термоса).
  4. Принимать такой крепкий настой семян бадьяна от глистов нужно всего дважды в день, утром и вечером, на голодный желудок, в течение двух недель, но не больше.

Применение бадьяна в качестве глистогонного средства обычно подразумевает не семена, а корни. Просто их действие мало отличается, а достать в средней полосе корни сложнее, чем на родине растения (то есть, в Китае). Однако если есть такая возможность, пренебрегать ею не стоит, поскольку концентрация дубильных веществ в корнях любых растений выше.

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